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Using robotics in modern medicine is slowly becoming a common practice. However, there are still important life science fields which are currently devoid of such advanced technology. A noteworthy example of a life sciences field which would benefit from process automation and advanced robotic technology is rehabilitation of the upper limb with the use of an orthosis. Here, we present the state-of-the-art and prospects for development of mechanical design, actuator technology, control systems, sensor systems, and machine learning methods in rehabilitation engineering. Moreover, current technical solutions, as well as forecasts on improvement, for exoskeletons are presented and reviewed. The overview presented might be the cornerstone for future research on advanced rehabilitation engineering technology, such as an upper limb bionic orthosis.
2020
Gustaw Rzyman,
Jacek Szkopek,
Grzegorz Redlarski,
Aleksander Pałkowski
Being the most detrimental mode in laminated structures, delamination initially degrades local structural strength, and lastly causes global structural failure, thus necessitating delamination identification at its incipient stages. For identification purposes, a comprehensive numerical and experimental study on delamination within both the laminated isotropic acrylic-glass and orthotropic epoxyglass plates is presented. As the first step, frequency variations in the acrylic-glass plate induced by different-sized delamination are examined at varying the in-plane or out-of-plane location as well as boundary conditions of delamination. Tiny delamination is identified by the use of processed signals of Lamb wave simulated by spectral finite element (SFE) technique in the next step when noticing the delamination-induced changes of frequency to be inefficient for detection purposes. While utilising absorbing layers with the obtained mechanical properties along the axis of symmetry, a quarter of the plate in the SFE domain is modelled. The study is concluded with finding the accurate location and shape of small delamination using A0 or S0 modes. The preference of A0 mode for the delamination identification compared to S0 mode is indicated. Finally, for verification purposes of Lamb wave patterns in real-life applications, a composite epoxy-glass plate is experimentally investigated via laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV).
2020
Khadijeh Askaripour,
Arkadiusz Żak
W publikacji przedstawiono pierwsze laboratoria wysokich napięć w Gdańsku, Wrocławiu, Lwowie, Warszawie, Gródku oraz osoby, które przyczyniły się do ich powstania. Alfons Hoffmann na Pomorzu, Ignacy Mościcki i Stanisław Jasilkowski we Lwowie i Kazimierz Drewnowski w Warszawie należą do pionierów i propagatorów techniki wysokich napięć w Polsce. Podczas budowy na początku ubiegłego stulecia nowoczesnych laboratoriów wykorzystywali nowatorskie pomysły oraz produkty wiodących firm, m in. fabryki transformatorów Siemens-Schuckert.
2020
Krystian Chrzan,
Marek Olesz,
Stanisław Wojtas
The primary objective of the presented paper is the numerical and experimental investigation related to developing a useful diagnostic method, which can be used for determining the site and size of damage in laminated shells of wind turbine blades. The described detection technique is based on the analysis of low frequencies bending vibrations mode shapes of rotor blades. The authors used the commonly applied statistics methods that have been adapted to detect edges of damage, including the normalized determination coefficient fit, which is a measure of the absolute fit between two curves. The research was conducted for a scaled-down blade of a three-bladed horizontal-axis wind turbine with 36 m diameter rotor. The study was divided into two parts. The first stage included numerical calculations using the finite element method, which were supplemented in the second stage by measurements under laboratory conditions of the specially manufactured composite blade. The forms of natural vibrations for intact and damaged blade were determined using Laser Doppler Scanning Vibrometry. The results of the presented research confirm the effectiveness of the modal analysis combined with statistic calculation in damage detection. The method points out the location of relatively small damage.
2020
Łukasz Doliński,
Marek Krawczuk
This work presents basic information associated with markets of selected alternative fuels used in transport, such as methyl esters, conventional bioethanol and lignocellulosic bioethanol, and the market of electrical vehicles. Legal conditions, which stimulate development and regulate the mode of functioning of the liquid biofuel market until 2020 are discussed, based on provisions of EU directives. Data on biofuel production in Poland are presented, as well as biofuel consumption in the EU, the USA and Brazil in 2017. The most important conclusions of the proposal for a directive on the promotion of renewable energy sources in transport in EU member states in years 2021–2030 are discussed. The authors have also indicated the key legal and territorial conditions associated with the development of electromobility and present basic information on electric vehicles in Poland and Europe. The results of the research on the attractiveness of these sectors in 2018 are presented and compared with the results obtained in years 2007–2017. A score-based sector attractiveness method was used in the research.
2019
Adam Kupczyk,
Joanna Mączyńska,
Grzegorz Redlarski,
Karol Tucki,
Anna Bączyk,
Dominik Rutkowski
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