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A small Counter-Rotating Wind Turbine (CRWT) has been proposed and its performancehas been investigated numerically. Results of a parametric study have been presented in this paper.As parameters, the axial distance between rotors and a tip speed ratio of each rotor have been selected.Performance parameters have been compared with reference to a Single Rotor Wind Turbine (SRWT).Simulations were carried out with Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) solver and a Large EddyScale approach to model turbulences. An Actuator Line Model has been chosen to represent rotors inthe computational domain. Summing up the results of simulation tests, it can be stated that whenconstructing a CRWT turbine, rotors should be placed at a distance of at least 0.5 D (where D is rotorouter diameter) or more. One can then expect a noticeable power increase compared to a singlerotor turbine. Placing the second rotor closer than 0.5 D guarantees a significant increase in power, butin such configurations, dynamic interactions between the rotors are visible, resulting in fluctuationsin torque and power. Dynamic interactions between rotor blades above 0.5 D are invisible.
2020
Michał Pacholczyk,
Dariusz Karkosiński
This article examines one of the basic issues related to the technique of mobile satellite measurements in railway tracks. This problem concerns the correction of the determined coordinates of the track centerline. The need to perform this operation results from the GNSS receivers positioning at a certain height above the level of the existing track axis, leading to longitudinal and lateral shifts of antennas. The key problem here is the determination of the local horizontal coordinate system in each measured position. For the analysis, the authors defined the directional baseline vector of the measuring platform on the basis of positions given by two satellite antennas, positioned over the pivots of its bogies. This work presents the procedure for determining the corrections values
2020
Andrzej Wilk,
Cezary Specht,
Krzysztof Karwowski,
Władysław Koc,
Jacek Skibicki,
Krzysztof Czaplewski,
Piotr Chrostowski,
Paweł Dąbrowski,
Sławomir Grulkowski,
Sławomir Judek,
Mariusz Specht,
Jacek Szmagliński
Each year, global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) improve their accuracy, availability, continuity, integrity, and reliability. Due to these continual improvements, the systems are increasingly used in various modes of transport, including rail transport, the subject of this publication. GNSS are used for rail passenger information, rail traffic management, and rail traffic control. These applications differ in the positioning requirements that satellite navigation systems must meet. This article presents the methods and systems of rolling stock location and tracking using the Polish State Railways (PKP) as an example. The information on the equipment used for train positioning is not specified anywhere, hence they may differ, even for the same multiple units travelling in different parts of the country. In addition, the publication presents the progress of the European Train Control System (ETCS) implementation by the PKP.
2020
Mariusz Specht,
Jacek Szmagliński,
Cezary Specht,
Władysław Koc,
Andrzej Wilk,
Krzysztof Czaplewski,
Krzysztof Karwowski,
Paweł Dąbrowski,
Piotr Chrostowski,
Sławomir Grulkowski
We present the main assumptions about the algorithmization of the analysis of measurement data recorded in mobile satellite measurements. The research team from the Gda´nsk University of Technology and the Maritime University in Gdynia, as part of a research project conducted in cooperation with PKP PLK (Polish Railway Infrastructure Manager), developed algorithms supporting the identification and assessment of track axis layout. This article presents selected issues concerning the identification of a tramway line’s axis system. For this purpose, the supporting algorithm was developed and measurement data recorded using Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) techniques was evaluated and analyzed. The discussed algorithm identifies main track directions from multi-device data and repeated position recordings. In order to observe the influence of crucial factors, the investigated route was carefully selected. The chosen tramway track was characterized by its location in various field conditions and a diversified and complex geometric layout. The analysis of the obtained results was focused on the assessment of the signal’s dispersion and repeatability using residuals in relation to the estimated track’s direction. The presented methodology is intended to support railway infrastructure management processes, mainly in planning and maintenance through an effcient inventory of the infrastructure in service.
2020
Andrzej Wilk,
Cezary Specht,
Władysław Koc,
Krzysztof Karwowski,
Jacek Skibicki,
Jacek Szmagliński,
Piotr Chrostowski,
Pawel S. Dabrowski,
Mariusz Specht,
Marek Zienkiewicz,
Sławomir Judek,
Marcin Skóra,
Sławomir Grulkowski
Satellite geodetic networks are commonly used in surveying tasks, but they can also be used in mobile surveys. Mobile satellite surveys can be used for trackage inventory, diagnostics and design. The combination of modern technological solutions with the adaptation of research methods known in other fields of science offers an opportunity to acquire highly accurate solutions for railway track inventory. This article presents the effects of work carried out using a mobile surveying platform on which Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers were mounted. The satellite observations (surveys) obtained were aligned using one of the methods known from classical land surveying. The records obtained during the surveying campaign on a 246th km railway track section were subjected to alignment. This article provides a description of the surveying campaign necessary to obtain measurement data and a theoretical description of the method employed to align observation results as well as their visualisation.
2020
Krzysztof Czaplewski,
Zbigniew Wiśniewski,
Cezary Specht,
Andrzej Wilk,
Władysław Koc,
Krzysztof Karwowski,
Jacek Skibicki,
Paweł Dąbrowski,
Bartosz Czaplewski,
Mariusz Specht,
Piotr Chrostowski,
Jacek Szmagliński,
Sławomir Judek,
Sławomir Grulkowski,
Roksana Licow
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