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Comprehensive, state-of-the-art review of information on the electric power system dynamics and stability. It places the emphasis first on understanding the underlying physical principles before proceeding to more complex models and algorithms. The book explores the influence of classical sources of energy, wind farms and virtual power plants, power plants inertia and control strategy on power system stability. The book cover a range of new and expanded topics including: Wide-area monitoring and control systems; Improvement of power system stability by optimization of control systems parameters; Impact of renewable energy sources on power system dynamics; The role of power system stability in planning of power system operation and transmission network expansion; Real regulators of synchronous generators and field tests; Selectivity of power system protections at power swings in power system; Criteria for switching operations in transmission networks; Influence of automatic control of a tap changing step-up transformer on the power capability area of the generating unit; Mathematical models of power system components such as HVDC links, wind and photovoltaic power plants; Data of sample (benchmark) test systems.
Jan Machowski,
Zbigniew Lubośny,
Janusz Białek,
James Bumby
This paper presents research on a hybrid photovoltaic-battery energy storage system, declaring its hourly production levels as a member of a balancing group submitting common scheduling unit to the day-ahead market. It also discusses the variability of photovoltaic system generation and energy storage response. The major research questions were whether the operation of a hybrid photovoltaic-battery energy storage system is viable from the technical and economic viewpoint and how to size battery energy storage for that purpose. The DIgSILENT PowerFactory environment was used to develop the simulation model of postulated hybrid system. Then, tests were conducted on real devices installed in the LINTE^2 laboratory at Gdańsk University of Technology, Poland. Firstly, power generation in the photovoltaic system was modeled using hardware in the loop technique and tested in cooperation with emulated photovoltaic and real battery energy storage system (lithium-ion battery, 25 kWh). Secondly, a real photovoltaic power plant (33 kW) and real battery energy storage were applied. The results obtained from laboratory experiments showed that market operation of hybrid photovoltaic-battery energy storage system is feasible. However, developing a control strategy constitutes a great challenge, as the operator is forced to intervene more frequently than the simulation models indicate in order to keep the parameters of battery storage within accepted ranges, especially in view of a sudden weather breakdown. Levelized cost of electricity from photovoltaic-battery energy storage system varied from 314 to 455 $/MWh, which has proven to be from two to three times higher than the current annual average day-ahead market price in Poland.
Robert Małkowski,
Marcin Jaskólski,
Wojciech Pawlicki
Low-voltage, as well as high-voltage power cable lines, are usually buried in the ground. The ampacity of the power cables in the ground mainly depends on the thermal resistivity of the soil, which may vary in a wide range. A common practice in power cable systems performance is to supply them from a pole of an overhead line. If so, a section of the line is located in free air and can be directly exposed to solar radiation. In some cases, the ampacity of power cables placed in free air is lower than in the ground. Differences in ampacities can be very high if thermal resistivity of the soil is very low, and simultaneously solar irradiation of cables in air occurs. This paper presents the risk of power cables overheating and in consequence the risk of their failure, when part of the underground power cable line is placed in free air. Temperature distribution of cables in the air (with and without solar radiation) for various load currents is presented. Thermal endurance of power cables insulation, operating with the overheating, is estimated.
Stanisław Czapp,
Seweryn Szultka,
Filip Ratkowski,
Adam Tomaszewski
In contemporary power systems, the load shedding schemes are typically based on disconnecting a pre-specified amount of load after the frequency drops below a predetermined value. The actual conditions at the time of disturbance may largely dier from the assumptions, which can lead to non-optimal or ineective operation of the load shedding scheme. For many years, increasing the eectiveness of the underfrequency load shedding (UFLS) schemes has been the subject of research around the world. Unfortunately, the proposed solutions often require costly technical resources and/or large amounts of real-time data monitoring. This paper puts forth an UFLS scheme characterized by increased eectiveness in the case of large disturbances and reduced disconnected power in the case of small and medium disturbances compared to the conventional load-shedding solutions. These advantages are achieved by replacing time-consuming consecutive load dropping with the simultaneous load dropping mechanism and by replacing ineective fixed-frequency activation thresholds independent of the state of the system with implicit adaptive thresholds based on fuzzy logic computations. The proposed algorithm does not require complex and costly technical solutions. The performance of the proposed scheme was validated using multivariate computer simulations. Selected test results are included in this paper.
Robert Małkowski,
Janusz Nieznański
In many applications, modern current-using equipment utilizes power electronic converters to control the consumed power and to adjust the motor speed. Such equipment is used both in industrial and domestic installations. A characteristic feature of the converters is producing distorted earth fault currents, which contain a wide spectrum of harmonics, including high-order harmonics. Nowadays, protection against electric shock in low-voltage power systems is commonly performed with the use of residual current devices (RCDs). In the presence of harmonics, the RCDs may have a tripping current significantly different from that provided for the nominal sinusoidal waveform. Thus, in some cases, protection against electric shock may not be effective. The aim of this paper is to present the result of a wide-range laboratory test of the sensitivity of A-type RCDs in the presence of harmonics. This test has shown that the behavior of RCDs in the presence of harmonics can be varied, including the cases in which the RCD does not react to the distorted earth fault current, as well as cases in which the sensitivity of the RCD is increased. The properties of the main elements of RCDs, including the current sensor, for high-frequency current components are discussed as well.
Stanisław Czapp
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